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Transport principals

Transport gateways + hubs

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Rail terminals
Connecting from one train to another or on a corridor,

perhaps connecting with other land transport - taxi or bus

Air terminals - airports
Connecting from one flight to another (in transit) or one flight perhaps connecting with other land transportation

Ferry terminals
Connecting sea transport to land transport - road and rail

Cruise terminals
Connecting sea transport to land transport - road and rail

Air transport

Air transport

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Air transport – types of flights
. domestic - within the country   
. international - country to country
. direct flights – not stopping 
. indirect flights – via other airports

Scheduled flights
(a regular timetabled service)
Full service = include entertainment, refreshments, check-in baggage etc
(Emirates, British Airways)
Low cost service = limited or no entertainment, charge for baggage, refreshments etc.
(Air Arabia, FlyDubai, Ryanair)

International and domestic flights
Airlines in most countries fly domestic routes and international routes
e.g. United Arlines, American Airlines, Lufthansa, British Airways, China Southern Airlines
Many of these airlines have more than one base eg British Airways = Heathrow and Gatwick

Chartered flights
For package tour holidaymakers to holiday destinations.
Tour operators pre-book seats on the flights.

Private jet
individuals or businesses ‘charter’ a flight for a specific destinations
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Etihad Airways experience at Abu Dhabi airport

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Airline Alliances

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. Role of IATA
. Aviation statistics

Airline operations

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Airline passengers
. transports over 2 billion passengers a year
. employs 29 million people
. 40% of travellers fly

Air Transport Action Group (ATGA)
. estimates $3,000 billion (8% of world GDP)

Airline industry
. 900 airlines . 22,000 aircraft . 1670 airports

Airline costs
2008 costs: workers (labour) 25%, fuel 25%
US$1 rise in fuel = US$1.6 billion for the airline industry
Other costs:
. aircraft . aircraft insurance . maintenance . landing fees . advertising and promotion .
. air navigation service charges . food and beverage supplier costs .
. travel agency commissions and ticketing costs .

Boeing 737 = $50 million

Reducing costs:
. low cost airlines do not use travel agents (save on commission)

Air regulation

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Regulation and deregulation of air transport

Regulation: rules and controls over the air industry
Deregulation: less control + self-regulation- industry controls itself

International + National regulation
International Civil Aviation Organisation - air safety
Government regulation: security, ticketing, aircraft manufacturing,
customer service - refunds in Europe
Airlines: routes, ticketing, fares, baggage, seat space, customer service

US Airline Deregulation Act 1978 - reduced regulation
International Air Transport Association - represents airline industry
- set standards across the world , pressure group for industry to fight against
government regulation

Air transport + tourism development

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Future spending
Most airlines and countries looking to increase spending over the next decade
(though COVID 19 may slow this spending)

UAE invested AED.1 trillion in airport infrastructure
Airport passengers rising 4%
Governments and private companies own and operate airports

represents 230 airlines from 118 countries
Raise standards in the airline industry - safety and security, training, environmental

Airline Alliances
join together to co-operate on:
customer: flights, routes (more destinations), airmiles, ticketing (code sharing)
airlines: maintenance, operations, purchasing etc


Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Airports Terminals for all flights or for:  domestic - within the country and international - country to country
 Cater to inbound and outbound passengers

Airports not only provide a range of airline services

but also a variety of connected services
e.g. accommodation, transport and information
Services, to enhance the customer experience.
These associated businesses pay rent to the airport to operate there, adding the airport’s revenue.
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Airport service

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Duty Free

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A walk through of Dubai International Airport (30:00)
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Travel: Dubai International Airport

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Relax + Refresh

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Left luggage

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Changi Airport

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Currency exchange

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JFK (New York)

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Inside JFK
by Long Haul

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Dubai International Airport

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Tour of the airport
by Wanderlust

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Munich Airport

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Munich Airport

Water transport


Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
As a group of islands the UK has a large number of ferry services to a number of countries offering a service for passengers with and without vehicles.

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Ferry terminal

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Ferry Terminal is a location for the boarding,
departure, or arrival of a ferry service.
Ferry terminals cater to freight and passengers.
Passengers can either be walk on or with a vehicle
– car or coach.
Large ferry terminals have facilities similar to airports:
. Shops  . Currency exchange. Food & drink 
.Toilets/Showers/Baby changing.    . First aid 
. Internet access  . Left luggage  . Car charging points
Ferry terminals are part of an integrated transport system connected to taxis, buses, coach and train services
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Dover: port and ferry terminal (4:18)

Port of Dover
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Travel: Port of Dover


Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Oceans, sea, rivers and lakes
Ocean cruise facts:
. Passengers: 26.7 million
. Jobs: 109,000
.  Revenue: $134 billion
Growing 4% pa with 19 new ships due to launch in 2020
Key benefits:
. All inclusive
. On board entertainment
. Visit a range of cities + countries (1 a day)
Cruises in creasing popular across the
age groups, themed cruises for target market
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Brief look at Dubai Cruise terminal (1:02)
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Travel: Dubai Cruise Terminal

Cruise terminal

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Example: Southampton Terminal

Southampton has 4 cruise terminals:
QEII, Ocean, City, and Mayflower
Deep water berths means it can accommodate
any size cruise ship
Southampton unusually has high water for 80% of
the time, meaning it has easy access for cruise ships
Cruise terminal handles 500 ships per year - 2 million passengers
Hotels – some local hotels offer ‘cruise packages’, one night stay + breakfast + transfer to cruise terminal
Shuttle transfer from Heathrow etc, Car parking, Restaurant, Shops, Toilets, Internet – Shopping centre nearby

Land transport

Rail travel

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
National and international networks
. rail networks link airports, sea ports etc with major towns and cities and include international routes (Eurostar runs from London to Paris
via tunnel)

. vary from country to country - often need government subsidy
or are totally owned by governments
. French TGV are high speed trains designed for tourists
. Different classes of seat    
. Fast travel and cheap if booked in advanced 

Scheduled rail operators
Short and long distance – many or few stops
Intercity: East Coast – West Coast – Midlands – Great Eastern – Great Western
Regional: Network South East – North East – North West - Scotland
Local: Docklands – Mersey rail – Wrexham & Shropshire

Rail tours & holidays
Short or long distance
Luxury  (Orient Express)
Heritage (Tourist attraction)
Compass Tours
DPS Rail tours
Stobart Pullman
Pathfinder Tours
Scottish Railway Preservation Society
Venice-Simplon Orient Express
Vintage Trains
Retro Rail tours
Green Express Rail tours
Kingfisher Rail tours

Rail terminal

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
St. Pancras Station, London
Opened in 1868 – expansion and renovation in 2000s to include an International Terminus at a
cost of £800 million for the Eurostar – connecting the UK to France by rail via the Channel Tunnel.
Eurostar provides services to Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Spain.
Rail services via four railway companies to the Midlands and the South East.
Connected to King Cross station and connects to
all other London railway stations via the underground system.
Direct connections to London airports including Heathrow, London Gatwick, Luton and London City Airport.
Taxis and bus services available at the station.
Hotels, Car parking, Restaurants, Bars, ATMs, Bicycle racks, Farmers’ market, Shops, Toilets + Showers, Left luggage, Internet, Bureau de Change
Departure lounge – including a dedicated Eurostar lounge
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A look at St Pancras International Station (16:16)
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Travel: St Pancras International Railway Station

Coach + bus travel

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
. Coach travel can be part of a package or as separate holiday or a mode of transport.
. Coach travel is often a multi-centre holiday, where people visit a number of places
. Coach day trips are popular to attractions and events.
. Coach trips can cheap travel option (or for those who do not like to fly) and are popular in the ‘grey market’.
. Coach travel between airports and cities and city to city is a cost effective way to travel
. Coaches have become more luxury with toilets, Wifi, onboard entertainment + refreshments.

Buses provide a cheap and convenient way to travel especially in large towns and cities where the service is regular. Rural areas have less frequent services.
Sightseeing tours – like Big Bus – provide ‘hop-on hop-off’ services as well as information about the city.

Coach + bus terminal

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
. Coach travel may be domestic or international
. Waiting time tends to less at coach terminals than airports therefore less facilities are needed
. Facilities may include:
. Toilets
. Waiting rooms
. Wifi
. Shops – food and drinks
. Left luggage

. Bus terminals may have basic facilities like toilets, food and drinks outlets.

. People at bus terminal tend to only be there for short periods so require less facilities.
. Covered or indoor seating areas are provided

Car travel

Key sectors of the travel + tourism industry: Transport principals
Car hire
Hire car (or rental) companies operate in most towns and cities. Some are local, others are national or international companies

. They offer:
. a range of vehicles to suit customer needs
. airport pickup and drop-off
. one way hire
. insurance cover

Taxis + Ubers
Taxis + Ubers are used primarily for short journeys. Tourists more likely to use taxis that they can hail in the road.
Taxis are also used for airport and railway station drop offs and pick-ups.

Private cars
Most domestic holidays + visits use cars as the primary mode of transport.

Private cars are the most convenient ways for most people but traffic congestion can be problem.
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